Maxime Golgi, formerly known as Alexei Maximevich Bishkek. Former Soviet writers, poets, critics, political commentators, scholars.
Gol is based on the March 16, 1868 was born in the Volga River under the town of Nautilogro a carpenter family. At the age of 4, his father died, and he spent his childhood with his mother in his grandfather's house. At the age of 10, Golgi began to make a living independently. He has been an apprentice, porters, gatekeepers, bread workers, etc., to experience the suffering of the lower people. During this period, he studied hard and began to explore the truth of transforming society. In 1884, he participated in the populist party group, read the works of populist writers and Marx's works, and actively engaged in revolutionary activities. In 1905, Gorky joined the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party. In 1906, Golgi was commissioned by Lenin, from Finland to the United States for revolutionary activities, published in the United States novel "mother". After settling in Capri Island, Italy. In 1913, Golgi returned from Italy, engaged in proletarian cultural organization work, presided over the "Pravda" literary column. After the October Revolution of 1917, there was a contradiction between Gorky and Lenin and the new regime, accompanied by the chaos, destruction, anarchism and various violent incidents of the revolution. In October 1921, due to the disease, also due to differences with the Bolshevik regime, Gorky went abroad to recuperate. In 1928, Gorky returned to the Soviet Union, under the arrangement of Stalin, he made two long-distance travel in Russia after the decision to return home to settle down. In 1934 was elected chairman of the Association. After returning to the Golgi as a flag of the Soviet cultural sector, for the Soviet culture to do a lot of work. But the Soviet Union in the 1930s all the problems that made him and Stalin and the reality of politics has always maintained a certain distance. June 18, 1936, Golgi disease died.
March 28, 1868, Alexei Maximilian Bishopov (Maxime Golgi) was born in the next Nuo Ke Ge Luo De (formerly known as Golgi City) a woodworking family.
In 1871, when Golgi was 4 years old his father died, with his mother to live in grandparents home.
In 1879, Gorky 11 years old to "human" independent living, had been apprenticeship, porters, bread workers and so on.
In the 1880s, Gorky participated in the intellectual learning team of intellectuals in the Kazan Mountains.
In 1883, Gorky began to wander life.
1884 living in Kazan, the late nineteen eighties and early 90s roaming all over Russia, a wide range of understanding of the people;
In 1889, after being arrested for participation in secret revolutionary organizations, the release was still monitored by the Constitutional Police.
Writing the way
In 1892, published in the "Caucasus" with Golgi Maxim (meaning the greatest pain) the pseudonym published debut novel "Margar Qudela", in the local press when editing, journalists, from the focus on writing.
In 1895, Golgi published a romantic short story "Yi Jigir old woman" and "song of the song", praised the love of freedom, longing for the bright and heroic performance of the strong personality, the desire to fight the passion.
In 1898, Golgi's first collection of two sets of "essays and short stories" come out, from the famous Russian and European literary world attracted wide attention at home and abroad.
In 1899, Gorky completed the first novel "Foma Golgyev".
At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the two novels of "Foma Golgyev" and "Three", through the broader reality picture, focused on revealing the theme of the exploration of young hero life.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, Gorky's creation turned to drama, reflecting the social contradictions in the most rapid, direct and concise manner.
From 1900 onwards, Gorky participated in and served the work of knowledge publishers, through the publication of "knowledge" series united at that time Russia has a large number of democratic tendencies of the writer.
In 1901, on the eve of the first major revolution in Russia, when the revolutionary movement of the masses was soaring, the tsar reactionary government intensified the repression of the people, and it was time for the revolution and the counter-revolution to wrestle. Golgi to participate in the demonstration of Petersburg, personally felt the workers movement, student movement majestic momentum, witnessed the tsarist government crackdown on student movement brutal crimes. He wrote the prose poem "Swallow Sword" (renamed "Swallow") in order to warmly praise the pioneer of the proletarian revolution, expose the tsarist reactionary government, criticize the opportunists and the bourgeois liberals. The revolutionary storm is coming soon, inspiring people to meet the great battle, this is a proletarian revolutionary battle of the text and carol, by Lenin's enthusiasm praise.
In 1901, Gorky also wrote the first script "Little Citizen", exposing the contradictions between bourgeois conservatives and liberals, shaping the image of the first revolutionary proletarian (revolutionary worker Neil) in the history of world literature.
In 1901, the Goyle was arrested for demonstrations in Petersburg. After being released from prison by the revolutionary party commissioned the establishment of secret printing, for the second time arrested, was exiled.
1902, wrote the script "at the bottom", which is the author through 20 years to observe the tramp life summary, is Gorky drama masterpiece.
In 1905, it was the beginning of the second stage of Golgi's thought and creative development (before and after the 1900-1909 revolution). During the fierce revolutionary situation, Gorky joined the revolutionary movement as a soldier, and his house became the armed uprising in 1905 One of the positions. As Golgi actively participated in the revolutionary movement, and Lenin met and joined the Bolshevik Party, the world view of a qualitative leap in the creation and more consciously for the proletarian revolutionary cause, and strive to create new heroes, write higher than life, Better, more beautiful things come.
In 1905, during the Russian revolution, Gorky actively engaged in the proletarian revolutionary struggle, joined the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party, and met with Lenin. In the early days of the outbreak of the revolution, he wrote as an eyewitness as a witness to the tsarist government, and called on the people to fight, and actively participated in the publication of the "New Life" and the "Battle Newspaper" of the Social Democratic Labor Party. The insurgents plan funds and weapons. During this period he also published a lot of political theory, which "talk about the small public habits," a profound analysis of small social habits of social roots, psychological characteristics and its harm to the cause of the revolution.
In 1906, Golgi secretly left Russia to the United States, where he proclaimed the revolution, raised funds for the party, wrote the political commentary "My Visit", which exposes and criticizes the capitalist system, and features "in the United States", the script "enemies". The script "The Enemy" and the novel "Mother" in the same year marked the creation of a new peak. "Mother" in the history of world literature has epoch-making significance. These two works are the foundation of Russian proletarian literature.
In the spring of 1907, he participated in the Fifth Congress of the Russian Democratic Labor Party in London. Since then, he and Lenin established a close connection and deep friendship.
1906 1908 published in the novel novel "confession", by Lenin's serious criticism. At that time, he published some papers and monographs "Russian literature history" and so on, also contains different degrees of "concept compound", "experience organization" and the creation of the wrong view. With the help of Lenin's criticism, he gradually raised his awareness from the advance group.
1901 ~ 1910, has written "small people" "bottom" "enemies" "summer", "the children of the sun" "barbarians" and many other important social and political script, some of which reflect the struggle on the death line The life of the poor people, and some expose the spiritual emptiness of the intellectuals and the bourgeois philistine. In the "Little Citizen" a play for the first time described the advanced workers Neil's glorious image. The script was staged, warmly welcomed by the revolutionary people, causing the tsarist government to fear.
1911 - 1913 years, complete the story set "Italian fairy tale". 1911 - 1917, completed the "Russian fairy tale". 1912-1917, completed "Ross Travels". In 1913, he created the first "childhood" of the autobiographical trilogy.
In 1913, returned to the motherland, presided over the "Pravda" literary column, engaged in cultural organization and literary activities. In 1916, published autobiographical trilogy of the second "in the world".
In the summer of 1921, Golgi disease relapsed to seek medical treatment until 1928, basically living in Sorrento, Italy. While he recuperates, he has done a great deal of work to train young writers and unite different styles of writers through letters and meeting visitors to try to resist the "left" and sectarian errors of some groups such as Lap. He also works hard to create and write a memoir "Leo Tolstoy" and close-up "Lenin" to complete the "my university", depicting the writer from the bottom of life to the revolutionary road, the workers looking for the truth, the pursuit of a bright process.
In 1922, published "my university".
In 1925, Golgi in the disease to complete the novel "Ardamonov husband's career." This description depicts the evolution of a family of three generations from the broad historical context of the Russian serfdom reform to the October Revolution in the mid-19th century, showing the inevitable decline of the bourgeoisie from a psychological and moral point of view.
In 1928, after the return of Gorky, twice to travel around the country to visit, witnessed the vigorous development of the socialist construction of the motherland, enthusiasm, wrote a long report of the literature "Soviet travel".
In 1931, Golgi settled in Moscow. In his later years, the script "Yegor Brechoff and others" and "Tosci Gayev and others" demonstrated the decline of capitalism and the victory of socialism; the novel "Klim Samkin The life of the Russian society in the 40 years before the October Revolution, with an individualist intellectuals as the central figure reflects the growth of revolutionary forces; "on the socialist realism" and a series of papers, advocate the socialist realism The
In 1934, Gorky presided over the first congress of the Soviet writers, and was elected the first president of the Soviet Writers Association. June 18, 1936 at 2:30, Gorky left the world at the age of 68 years old.